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        [華語] Gwhyneth Chen《Franz Liszt études ... transcendante》2019/320K/MP3/BD/CT

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        專輯名稱:Franz Liszt études d'exécution transcendante
        歌手名稱:Gwhyneth Chen(陳毓襄)
        制作發行:發現音樂
        發行日期:2019年09月25日
        專輯語言:純音樂



        專輯介紹:

        前言 / 陳毓襄

        在征服許多國際比賽及演奏會的挑戰后,我受邀演奏一場最初看似不可能完成的表演—李斯特《超技練習曲》。大多數的人認為彈奏這12首練習曲只需要技巧,但事實上,除了技巧外,要演奏整部套曲,還需要熱情以及精辟的思維去感受其中細微的心境共鳴。

        這張CD是和身兼工程師與制作人Tom Lazarus,在錄音室花了3天所完成的作品,我們最終選擇長達75分鐘且一次到位的版本。中國有個古老的寓言故事,講述一條卑微的鯉魚躍過龍門,變成一條強大無比的龍。在第三天,隨著磁帶轉動著,我「躍過了龍門」一次錄完那總共12首的《超技練習曲》。我認為演奏必須「一口氣」完成的理由,可說與樂曲背后的故事相吻合,將透過以下敘述清楚說明。

        李斯特的《超技練習曲》,能夠帶人透過樂曲中所闡述的人生故事,進入一段情感強烈的旅程。練習曲中的第一首到第三首是在為后五首做鋪陳。從第四首到第八首,演奏者必須完全投入其中,彷彿超越人的境界。而第八首則是個重要的考驗,決定演奏者最終能否躍過那道龍門的關鍵。這12首練習曲不同于其他作曲模式,將樂曲高潮設計于套曲中段,而是讓演奏者在第八首練習曲〈狩獵〉中進入超凡境界。在歷經肉體、情緒及靈魂的最高點后,樂曲將緩緩的進入第九首練習曲,這段的意境在描述人緬懷過去的美好,直到終曲的〈耙雪〉。最后,在〈耙雪〉的落雪意象中,彈奏者也將無可避免地感受到生命不過是一場徒勞。

        《舊約圣經》中的《傳道書》開頭提到「虛空的虛空,凡事都是虛空」。《般若波羅蜜多心經》中,釋迦摩尼佛則是以「無智亦無得」的洞見來質疑塵世間無盡的追求。也許,李斯特想透過這12首練習曲傳達上述那無意義追逐的道理。

        在這英雄旅程的結尾,李斯特呈現給我們一片被雪覆蓋的景色。彷彿被吹逝于空氣中的雪,練習曲及人生皆雙雙在此終結。人生悲慘諷刺的就是:在最后一口氣之后,一切也結束了,財富、聲望以及權利最終都化作虛無。李斯特要我們去深思欲望及斗爭的無益,最終,它們的價值又是什么?

        這令我想起一部文學作品:清代作家曹雪芹(1715-1763)的《紅樓夢》,其中的悲劇情節與李斯特的超技練習曲相似,其結局以賈府衰敗及降雪收場;任何先前的權勢、名聲及榮耀歸無所得。

        當我一口氣彈完李斯特12首《超技練習曲》,我更深感進入了這部作品的陰暗處,使我更堅韌得以完成這趟巡禮。李斯特的《超技練習曲》是作曲家結合哲學與技巧的典范,同時也造就這技巧高超且永恒不朽的作品。

        我想感謝Tom Lazarus在錄制期間的耐心以及他所給予的自由。我也想感謝李斯特的第五代弟子Ivo Pogorelich 與Aliza Kezeradze。最后,謝謝當初安排我在2011年為李斯特兩百周年誕辰彈奏《超技練習曲》的焦元溥先生。

        Preface/Gwhyneth Chen

        After conquering the challenges of international competitions and the concert stage, I was presented with a proposal which initially seemed impossible - - to perform Liszt’s Transcendental études. Many people assume that the Transcendental Etudes are only technically demanding, but in fact what they require goes beyond technique. To play the études demands technique, passion and a discerning intellect, open to a subtle and spiritual vibration.

        This CD is the result of a three-day studio session with engineer and producer Tom Lazarus, but the recording we selected happened in one, long 75-minute take. There is an ancient Chinese fable about a lowly carp who, by leaping over the dragon gate, transforms into a powerful dragon. On the third day, with the tape running, I “jumped over the dragon gate” and played the set of twelve études in a single take. The reasons why I feel that playing them “in a single breath,” so to speak, accords with the Liszt’s story-line in the Transcendental études will be made clear below.

        Liszt’s Transcendental études are a set of stories that take one on an emotional journey through a person’s lifetime. études no.1 to no. 3 are a warmup, a preparation for the next five études. From étude no. 4 to no. 8 the pianist must give her all, to seemingly transcend the human realm. étude no. 8 is the crucial test to determining whether or not she can ultimately leap the dragon gate. During “Wilde Jagd,” one reaches the point of transcendence; unusual among compositions in that the peak occurs in the middle of the set. After this physical, emotional, and spiritual climax, the music gradually descends from étude no. 9, which is like someone reminiscing over the glories of the past, to the final piece, “Chasse-neige.’ Amid the falling snow of “Chasse-neige,” the pianist comes face to face with the inescapable realization of the futility of life’s striving.

        “Vanity of vanities; all is vanity,” says a statement at the beginning of the “Book of Ecclesiastes” in the Old Testament. The Buddha in the Heart Sutra questions the point of worldly striving with this deep insight: “There is no knowing and no attaining.” Perhaps Liszt in his twelve études is pointing us to that same unsettling realization of the pointlessness of the chase.

        At the end of this heroic journey, Liszt shows us a landscape covered by snow. The études and life itself both end with a handful of snow sent into the air by a puff of breath. The tragic irony of life: one last breath and it’s all over. Wealth, prestige, and power come to nothing in the end. Liszt asks us to contemplate the vanity of our desires and our struggles. What are they worth, ultimately?

        One recalls Dream of the Red Chamber, the Qing Dynasty novel by Cao Xueqin (1715-1763) which mirrors the tragic story-line of the études. The novel ends in a snowfall with the tragic ruin of the Jia family; nothing remains of their former power, eminence and glory.

        Having played the twelve études in one breath, I felt that I had traveled into the shadows and emerged stronger for having made the journey. Liszt’s études represent the epitome of a composer’s alchemical blending of philosophy and technique to create brilliant, undying music.

        I want to thank Tom Lazarus for his patience and his gift of freedom when making this recording. I also want to thank Ivo Pogorelich and Aliza Kezeradze, who was the fifth generational student in the lineage of Franz Liszt himself. Thanks to YuanPu Chiao who originally commissioned me to play the études as a set commemorating Liszt’s 200th anniversary in 2011.

        陳毓襄/鋼琴

        1970年7月29日出生的美籍華裔鋼琴家-陳毓襄,在1993年的波哥雷里奇鋼琴大賽中,贏得了史上最高獎金十萬美元;年僅二十三歲的她,是當時最小的參賽者。賽后,波哥雷里奇(Ivo Pogorelich, 1958-)本人還稱盛她的才華“好得令人難以置信”,隨后其知名度水漲船高,成為當時鋼琴界中最重要的新銳;而美國CNN電視也在國際間轉播了此優秀成績。

        出生于臺灣,1980年和家人移居至美國,與Eduarado Delgado (1943-)、 Robert Turner (1914-2001) 及Aube Tzerko (1907-1995) 學習音樂。于美國茱莉亞音樂學院取得學士及碩士學位,期間曾師事Martin Canin (1930-) 、Byron Janis (1928-) 及殷承宗 (1941-)。11歲時與樂團首次公演彈奏普羅高菲夫第三號鋼琴協奏曲。1990年她以十九歲之齡在國際柴可夫斯基鋼琴大賽的獲獎,接著在1992年得到了普羅高菲夫國際鋼琴大賽的獎項。

        她還與許多杰出的樂團合作過,包括洛杉磯愛樂交響樂團 (The Los Angeles Philharmonic),卑爾根愛樂團 (Bergen Philharmonic),國立臺灣交響樂團 (Taiwan National Orchestra),莫斯科愛樂樂團 (Moscow State Philharmonic)…等。她還應邀新克羅拉多交響樂團首演,于McNichols體育館內,在一萬五千名觀眾前彈奏柴可夫斯基第一號鋼琴協奏曲。

        1994年她與普雷特涅夫(Mikhail Pletnev, 1957-)及俄羅斯國家管弦樂團合作,于莫斯科音樂學院大禮堂演出拉赫曼尼諾夫第三號鋼琴協奏曲。1999年發行收錄史克里亞賓 (Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, 1871-1915) 及史特拉汶斯基 (Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky, 1882-1971) 的作品輯。

        她在國際音樂節中極受歡迎,時常參與各地音樂節演出。2008年陳毓襄應中華人民共和國政府邀請參加了北京國家大劇院的開幕演出,在國內更被譽為「臺灣之光」。

        Gwhyneth Chen/Piano

        Ms Gwhyneth Chen, a Taiwanese American pianist who in 1993, won the biggest cash prize in the history of piano competitions ($100,000.00) . Ms. Chen, then a young lady of 23, was the youngest contestant at the 1993 Ivo Pogorelich International Piano Competition. Subsequent to the award, Mr. Ivo Pogorelich (1958-) himself said of her talent, “She is too good to be true.” Immediately recognized as one of the foremost pianists of her generation, the victory was broadcast internationally on CNN television.

        Born in Taiwan, Ms Chen emigrated to the United States with her family in 1980, where she continued her musical studies with Eduardo Delgado (1943-), Robert Turner (1914-2001), and Aube Tzerko (1907-1995). She received her Bachelor and Master of Music degrees from the Juilliard School. While in New York, her teachers were Martin Canin (1930-), Byron Janis (1928-) and Yin Cheng-Zong (1941-). Her first performance with orchestra was at age eleven when she performed Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev’s (1891-1953) Piano Concerto No. 3. At the age of nineteen, she was a laureate in the 1990 Tchaikovsky International Piano Competition. In 1992, she was once again a laureate, this time in the Prokofiev International Piano Competition.

        Ms Chen has appeared with an outstanding number of orchestras, including the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Bergen Philharmonic, Taiwan National Orchestra, Moscow State Philharmonic, and etc. For the extravagant debut of the New Colorado Symphony, she was chosen as the first soloist performing the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto No.1 before a crowd of 15,000 at the McNichols Stadium.

        In 1994, she played the opening concert of the season in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory with the Russian National Orchestra under Mikhail Pletnev (1957-), performing the Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No.3. In 1999, her first CD was released, featuring works by Scriabin and Stravinsky.

        Ms. Chen received high honor from international musical and diplomatic circles when she was invited by the government of China (PRC) to perform a concert in the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing, China, to celebrate the 2008 Olympics, and she was acclaimed nation-wide as “The Pride of Taiwan.”.

        超越技巧的技巧:李斯特《超技練習曲》

        焦元溥

        所謂的「練習曲」其實是多種概念的統稱。若就內涵加以細分,可列為三種:第一是「技巧練習」(Exercise)。這類作品旨在特定技術練習,多以不斷重復的音型組織而成。最為極端的「技巧練習」甚至沒有音樂可言,完全供取得特定技巧之用。第二是「練習曲」(Study/étude)。如果作曲家針對特定技巧創作,樂曲以類似音型組成,但有音樂與藝術表現,如此就可稱為「練習曲」。第三是「音樂會練習曲」(Concert étude)。此類作品不必然以固定音型構成,但必然有特定技巧展示,而這技巧又往往是作曲家的創新發明。李斯特十二首《超技練習曲》(études d'exécution transcendante, S. 139)雖如「練習曲」多有固定音型,性質卻為「音樂會練習曲」,每曲也不只練習一種技巧,是多種技巧的混合。

        早在1826年,十五歲的李斯特 (Franz Liszt, 1811-1886) 就計劃以二十四個大小調寫作四十八首練習曲,但最后僅完成《十二首技巧練習》(étude en douze exercices, S. 136)。到了1837年,深受帕格尼尼 (Niccolò Paganini, 1782-1840) 刺激的他,以全新視野大幅改訂,是為《十二首大練習曲》(Douze Grandes études, S. 137),果然在鋼琴上展現鬼神見愁的驚人技巧。然而他并不以此為滿足,于1852年再次精修,出版為十二首《超技練習曲》,獻給老師徹爾尼 (Carl Czerny, 1791-1857)。比較前后兩版,1837年版過于復雜,聲音效果也不理想。1852年版雖仍艱深,但鋼琴寫作合理,樂思表現成熟,是更杰出的創作。

        新版《超技練習曲》是李斯特多年研究鋼琴音色、音響、力度表現與技巧招式后所積累的心得大宗,但他要表現的并非只是技巧,而是「透過技巧展現音樂想象」。這也是為何這十二曲篇幅幾乎都較一般練習曲長,其中十曲也有標題的原因。直至今日,《超技練習曲》仍是鋼琴技巧之頂冠經典,嚴苛考驗鋼琴家的手指與頭腦。

        Beyond Technical Skills: Franz Liszt études d'exécution transcendante

        Yuan-Pu Chiao

        The term “étude” is a general expression that can hold several meanings and can be subdivided into three different types. The first type is “Exercise”. An “Exercise” is a composition based on a repetitive pattern, designed to develop a specific technical skill. The most extreme examples of these “Exercises” do not have any musical purpose, but are fully dedicated to the development of specific skills. The second type for “étude” is “Study”. This type of composition also uses repeating patterns in order to build up particular skills but with substantial musical and artistic expressions. The third type is called “Concert étude”. While this type of work is also devoted to the practice of specific skills, it does not necessarily consist of repeating patterns and often demonstrates an innovation in the technique of composition. Although we find several repeating patterns in the études d'exécution transcendante, S. 139, because of their nature they classify as "Concert études," these pieces are not designed to develop a single technical skill but, rather, several skills that interact with each other.

        As early as 1826, the then 15-year-old Franz Liszt (1811-1886) had planned to write forty-eight études in each of the twenty-four major and minor keys. However, in the end he only completed the étude en douze exercices, S. 136. In 1837, he was greatly inspired by Niccolò Paganini (1782-1840), who opened up new horizons for him and changed his artistic vision and resulted in the production of the Douze Grandes études, S. 137, in which he really gave the pianist an opportunity to show off his astonishing skills on the piano. However, Liszt was not satisfied with his work. In 1852, he refined and published it as twelve études d'exécution transcendante or Transcendental études dedicated to Carl Czerny(1791-1857), Liszt’s mentor. If we compare the latter two, the 1837 version may seem overly complex and with unideal sound effect. Although still demanding in skills, the 1852 version is more consistent and its style more mature, which makes it a much more prominent work.

        The 1852 version of études d'exécution transcendante is a masterpiece, with an emphasis on tone poems, sound images, intense dynamics and astounding technical difficulties. However, this work is not merely a virtuosic showmanship, but rather expresses musical images through technical skills. That explains the longer length of the twelve compositions compared to other études in general, and the titles given to ten of them. To this day, it remains a formidable challenge for the pianist technically and artistically, the études d'exécution transcendante are still seen as the culmination of technical skills for the piano.

        第一曲〈前奏曲〉,C大調

        自巴赫 (Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750) 《十二平均律》 (Well-Tempered Clavier) 第一冊前奏曲以來,如何在C大調中試驗各種轉調,似乎就成了西方作曲家的傳統。《超技練習曲》第一首名為「前奏曲」,如蕭邦(Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, 1810-1849)C大調第一首練習曲一般回溯巴赫,在短短二十三小節內展現恢宏的音域幅度、不凡氣勢以及燦爛豐富的和聲變化,正是全曲集的精采縮影。

        No. 1, Preludio (C major)

        Since Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier, experimenting with various transpositions in C major seems to be the tradition among Western composers. We find examples of this with the first of the études d'exécution transcendante called “Preludio”, and also with Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin's (1810-1849) "étude Op. 10, No. 1". In a short twenty-three bars, Liszt displays a magnificent sound range, extraordinary momentum and splendid richness in harmonization, all of which makes it the highlight of the 12 études.

        第二曲〈A小調練習曲〉

        接在C大調第一曲,第二首練習曲以其平行小調(德文用法;英文是關系調)譜出,是屬一屬二的超級難曲。篇幅雖短,卻技巧性地大量違反前輩徹爾尼和胡麥爾 (Johann Nepomuk Hummel, 1778-1837)等人所歸納出演奏規律,要求不可思議的手掌移位與手指獨立性。在樂曲高潮之巔,鋼琴家竟必須雙手交替,橫跨五個八度上下來回,簡直是體操表演。此曲和第十曲,是全曲集中唯二沒有標題之作。當然有人會發揮想象自添標題,布梭尼 (Ferruccio Busoni, 1866-1924) 就將第二曲命名為「火箭」(Fusées),第十曲命名為「熱情」(Appassionata)。但它們之所以沒有標題,或許在于此二曲的確是《超技練習曲》中格式最嚴謹之作:既然結構章法面面俱到,就該讓音樂表現抽象美感,展現絕對音樂的純粹之美,何必要以標題設想?此曲從最簡單的單音、音程開始,一路發展出多重聲部,在中段方提出旋律,充分發展后又逐漸收尾,最后回到開頭單音,結構確實令人贊嘆。

        No. 2, Molto vivace (A minor)

        Following the first piece in C major, the second étude is composed in its relative minor, which is a very difficult tonality to play in. Although the work is short, in many ways it breaks with a large number of rules established by Liszt's predecessors Czerny, Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837), and others. The work requires strong finger independence and rapid hand shifting movements. In fact, at the climax of this piece, the pianist performs something similar to a gymnastic performance with both hands alternating on the same note up and down five octaves repeatedly. This composition and the tenth are the only two of the whole series that do not have titles. Of course, some have used their imagination to add titles of their own. Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), for instance, had named the second piece “Fusées” (Rockets) and the tenth “Appassionata”. The unparalleled rigor of these two pieces might explain the absence of a title. Since the structure of the composition is all-encompassing and speaks for itself, is a title really necessary? Why not simply let the music express its abstract and pure beauty? The piece begins with the simplest monophony and intervals that soon evolve into multiple voices before introducing the melody in the middle section. After a full development, the composition gradually returns to a simpler expression only to finally come back to the initial monophonic sound. The structure is amazing indeed.

        第三曲〈風景〉,F大調

        此曲具有優美詩意,隱藏其中的則是艱深的左手與掌握不易的田園風韻律。李斯特動輒開展出四聲部對話,左手在聲部區分的考驗下更有困難的跳躍與擴張,又必須和右手開展出不對稱的旋律應答,加上精巧的和聲設計與縝密的織體處理,難度不可小覷。至于曲題,一般認為是鄉間圖畫,也有人認為暗指雨果 (Victor Marie Hugo, 1802-1885) 同名詩作。但無論如何,就如白遼士 (Hector Louis Berlioz, 1803-1869) 《幻想交響曲》 (Symphonie Fantastique) 第三樂章〈田園景色〉 (Scène aux champs ) 一般,從十八世紀至十九世紀初,所謂田園或風景主題,重心都在人對自然的感懷,而非純粹自然描寫。李斯特放入〈風景〉,確實反映時代風尚。

        No. 3, Paysage (F major)

        The technical difficulties of the left hand and the intricate pastoral rhythm of this composition are well-hidden under its poetic beauty. Challenged by the voicing of a four-part dialogue, the left hand executes arduous extensions and stretches, while the right hand reciprocates with an asymmetrical melody. Along with the delicate harmony and meticulous treatment of texture, no one can deny the difficulty of the work. As for the title, it is generally considered to be a portrayal of the countryside, bringing to mind Victor Marie Hugo's (1802-1885) poem of the same name. But in any case, what is important here is that, just like in the third movement “Scène aux champs” in Hector Berlioz's (1803-1869) Symphonie Fantastique or any pastoral or scenic theme from the 18th to early 19th century, the focus is on people's feelings for nature, rather than simply its description. By giving a title such as “Paysage” to the composition, Liszt really reflects the fashion of his time.

        第四曲〈馬采巴〉,D小調

        演奏此曲不只需要過人的力道與敏捷,還必須面對李斯特設計的困難三度音指法(又是刻意和徹爾尼規則相反,訓練手掌位置快速移動的技巧),以及狂熱的八度和大跳。此曲靈感來自雨果詩作,烏克蘭英雄馬采巴,從侍童到王者的傳奇人生。李斯特也曾譜寫《馬采巴》交響詩,〈馬采巴〉練習曲就是交響詩版本前半,描繪主角被綁在馬后、拖行于荒野的情景。或許就是要有瘋狂的跳躍技巧,還有絕對避免任何圓滑奏可能的三度音指法,才能表現達達馬蹄之原野狂奔,無所匹敵的奔騰氣勢。此曲另一讓人驚奇之處,在于從頭到尾幾乎就是單一旋律,若非技巧和節奏設計皆有妙思,聽眾必感厭倦—事實上,李斯特的確費心思索。我們今日所見之〈馬采巴〉,竟然是他第七個版本,足稱作曲家天才與苦功的證明。在〈馬采巴〉最后,旋律終于有所改變,以裝飾奏樂段表現內心轉折,最后導入輝煌結尾,呼應雨果詩句「落馬卻稱王」。

        No. 4, Mazeppa (D minor)

        Playing this piece not only requires strength endurance and agility, but the pianist must also tackle Liszt's difficult three-hand effect (deliberately contrary to Czerny's rules of training the hand position to move quickly), crazy octaves and big jumps. This composition was inspired by Victor Hugo's poem about the Ukrainian hero Mazeppa, a simple servant who became a legendary king. Liszt used the “Mazeppa” étude as the first half of his symphonic poem of the same name, depicting the protagonist being strapped to a wild horse and dragged into the wilderness. The sound of the galloping horses is done by insane octave jumps and absolute precision of the three-hand effect with special fingering by Liszt to prevent any legato. This gives unparalleled momentum to the composition. He continues to impress us by using only one theme throughout this piece. If not for his genius in technical and rhythmic variations, it would’ve sounded monotonous. The “Mazeppa” we have today is actually the seventh version, which is a proof of the aspiration and perspiration of the composer. Towards the end of the piece, the melody finally takes a turn, expressing a change of state. The brilliant coda ends echoing Victor Hugo's verse, “He falls, then rises a king!”

        第五曲〈鬼火〉,降B大調

        和蕭邦〈三度音〉練習曲并稱,〈鬼火〉大概是史上最讓人膽戰心驚的練習曲。兩者都要求完美的手指獨立性,更逼鋼琴家在鋼索上跳舞,在極快速、極困難的音符中靈快唱歌。〈鬼火〉甚至強調必須彈得極弱(pianissimo)又極輕(leggierissimo),堪稱鋼琴技巧中困難至極的輕功大成。甚至它還不只右手困難,更以繁復音符與左手整人的大跳聞名于世。如何征服難如登天的技巧,同時表現磷光點點的鬼魅氣氛,一直著考驗一代又一代的技巧天才,連霍洛維茲都認為這是世界上最難的練習曲。而此曲在音響設計上的創新,又悄悄開啟日后印象派音樂的大門。雖然艱深至極,卻也迷人無比。

        No. 5, Feux follets (B-flat major)

        Chopin's “étude en tierces” and Liszt's “Feux follets” are probably the most terrifying études in history. Both demand perfect finger independence and require the performer to “dance” on an iron wire while singing the fast and intricate passages. Its title, “Feux follets”, even emphasizes that it must be played in an extremely soft (pianissimo) and light (leggierissimo) fashion, which is without a doubt a very challenging task on the piano. Not only is this piece notoriously difficult for the right hand, it is also infamous for the intricate notes and the big jumps in the left hand. This composition has been a big challenge of technical difficulty for generations of pianists, who, while conquering the terrifying virtuosity, one must also bring to life the ghostly flickering lights and whimsical character. Even Horowitz (1903-1989) considered this étude to be the most difficult in the world. The composition's innovation in sound illustration quietly opens the door to future impressionist music. Although it is extremely difficult, it is also incomparably charming.

        第六曲〈幻影〉,G小調

        此曲要求手指和手掌的延伸與彈性、雙手反向行進、雙音琶奏和顫音。和〈馬采巴〉類似,〈幻影〉也以不同技巧表現做為變奏,將兩主題依序發揮。論及意涵,〈幻影〉可能也意指雨果同名詩作,但從李斯特筆記上的原始構思,以及筆記中「神怒之日」的紀錄,加上「沉重的慢板」(Lento Pesante)之標示,此曲應是葬禮景象,李斯特研究者雷伯(Peter Raabe, 1872–1945)與布梭尼甚至認為它是對拿破侖的紀念。無論內涵為何,〈幻影〉在哀傷中有壯闊,確實具有英雄形象,鋼琴家也必須展現出大開大闔的演奏氣勢。

        No. 6, Vision (G minor)

        This composition is a practice of extension and elasticity of the hands, contrary motion of the hands, arpeggiated double notes and tremolos. Like in “Mazeppa”, Liszt wrote variations on the theme by using different kinds of technical skills. The meaning of the title, "Vision", may here again relate to Victor Hugo's poem of the same name. However if we refer to Liszt’s notebook, the original idea might come from “Dies Irae”, to which Liszt attributed the tempo marking, “Lento Pesante”. Liszt’s biographer Peter Raabe (1872–1945) and Busoni even thought that this composition was in fact a funeral scene, a memorial to Napoleon. However, amidst the darkness and sorrow is magnificence, a sense of heroism. It is the pianist’s task to exhibit all of its grandeur and greatness.

        第七曲〈英雄〉,降E大調

        自從貝多芬(Ludwig Van Beethoven, 1770-1827)《英雄》交響曲之后,降E大調就成了「英雄」的象征,李斯特此曲和理查?史特勞斯(Richard Georg Strauss, 1894-1949)交響詩《英雄生涯》,都以降E大調譜成。它以相當簡單的主題開展,一樣以多種技巧不斷發展變化,到樂曲高潮則是雙手八度琶音,來回反復不斷跳躍。至于如何從尖銳奇突的開頭,一路開展出英雄形象,那又是演奏家的另一層考驗。

        No. 7, Eroica (E-flat major)

        Since Ludwig Van Beethoven's (1770-1827) Eroica Symphony, the E major tonality has become a symbol of “heroism”. Liszt’s étude and Richard Georg Strauss' (1894-1949) Symphonic Poem Ein Heldenleben are both in E-flat major. This étude has a fairly simple theme that gradually evolves with constant technical variations. It finally erupts with rapid octave arpeggiation in both hands. As for how to bring the sharp and abrupt opening to a heroic glory is the challenge for the performer.

        第八曲〈狩獵〉,C小調

        〈狩獵〉也是著名難曲,要求靈活手腕和扎實八度跳躍技巧。樂曲是單一主題,隨著音樂行進逐步增強,最后白熱化收尾。然而此曲最引人玩味之處,或許還是標題:這里的「狩獵」并非一般打獵,而和魔鬼傳說有關。標題可能來自韋伯(Carl Maria von Weber, 1786-1826)歌劇《魔彈射手》(Der Freischütz),七顆魔鬼子彈追逐獵物的場景,也有可能如法朗克(Cesar Franck, 1822-1890)后來的交響詩《被詛咒的獵人》(Le Chasseur Maudit),講述德國傳說「野獵」故事:領主安息日不作禮拜卻出游打獵,最后被上帝懲罰,要被魔鬼永世追逐。無論所指為何,此曲的「打獵」是群魔亂舞、惡鬼出游,是魔鬼形象的化身,也是這十二曲中的熱門作。

        No. 8, Wilde Jagd (C minor)

        Like several other Transcendental études, “Wilde Jagd”, is known for its difficulty, and requires flexible wrists as well as rapid octave jumping skills. The piece is mono-thematic, which, as the music progresses, gradually builds up to finish in great fervor. Still, the most intriguing part of this composition probably resides in its title, “Hunting”. In this context, “Hunting” does not refer to the general meaning of the word, but is related to the German folk legend of the devil. The title might come from the scene of the seven devilish bullets chasing their prey in Carl Maria von Weber's (1786-1826) opera Der Freischütz. Another possibility could be Cesar Franck's (1822-1890) Symphonic Poem The Accursed Huntsman (Le Chasseur Maudit), which retells the German legend of the The Wild Hunter. The story goes that the count did not pray on the Sabbath but traveled to hunt. Punished by God he is chased by the demons of eternity. With or without its title, this composition – one of the most popular of the twelve études – is the incarnation of evil dances and spirits, the embodiment of the image of the devil.

        第九曲〈回憶〉,降A大調

        在快速奔放的〈狩獵〉和〈F小調練習曲〉之間,李斯特安排了慢速的〈回憶〉,演奏時間通常也是全曲集中最長的一曲。前面數曲,我們看到李斯特引用雨果詩作,也可能引用歌德(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749-1832)場景,有自然風光也有民間傳說。到了〈回憶〉,作曲家終于描寫自己。也或許正是因為寫自己,在展示各種驚人技巧后,李斯特知道謙虛,寫出單純卻曖昧的幽微情感。全曲宛如即興抒懷,話到嘴邊終是語帶保留;曾經擁有的,現在已是褪色情詩。雖然技巧不艱深,李斯特仍將其放入《超技練習曲》,也可見他平衡曲集的獨到心思。

        No. 9, Ricordanza (A-flat major)

        Between the fast and unrestrained “Wilde Jagd” and the “Allegro agitato molto”, Liszt inserted a slow “Ricordanza”. Its performance time is usually the longest of the whole series of études. In the preceding pieces, Liszt quotes Hugo and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's (1749-1832) poems for their nature and folk scenes. But when it comes to memories and reminiscences, the composer reflects on himself in the music. Perhaps because he was writing about himself, after demonstrating all kinds of astonishing techniques, Liszt was humbled and wrote about simple but ambiguous emotions. The piece is like an improvisation, the words are constrained; what they once owned is now a fading poem. Although the work is not extremely demanding technically, it is still included in the études d'exécution transcendante, which shows Liszt's unique thought for the overall balance of the series.

        第十曲〈F小調練習曲〉

        此曲和貝多芬《熱情》(Appassionata) 奏鳴曲皆以F小調譜成,而此曲1837年版最后結尾也的確和《熱情》奏鳴曲結尾相似,兩者或許真有聯系,李斯特所設下的嚴謹結構也足以和貝多芬相比:〈F小調練習曲〉是具體而微的奏鳴曲式,激昂情感和工整章法完美結合,確是極具功力的寫作。此曲有許多雙手交替音型,演奏者必須掌握精準,并且在看似機械性的技法中表現出強勁張力與旋律美感。聽眾不容易察覺的,則是不易彈好的左手音型。如何同時呈現此曲的情感與形式之美,演奏地流暢而非突兀,自然是演奏家的高段挑戰。

        No. 10, Allegro agitato molto (F minor)

        This composition shares the tonality of F minor with Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata. There are similarities in the coda between the 1837 version and the finale of the Appassionata Sonata. The two works might indeed be related. In fact, the strict structure established by Liszt for this piece can be compared to the one found in Beethoven's Sonata. The Allegro agitato molto is in itself a micro-sonata, and is a perfect combination of passionate emotions and drama. It is indeed very powerful writing. There are many passages played by alternating hands. The performer must master precision and exhibit the strong tension and melodic aesthetic of the music, using what seems to be a mere mechanical technique. The audience will not easily detect how difficult it is to obtain a good sound in the left hand. It is the performer’s challenge to simultaneously reveal the beauty of the emotions and the clarity of the form, while maintaining a smooth and seamless sound.

        第十一曲〈晚間的和聲〉,降D大調

        〈晚間的和聲〉和〈回憶〉是《超技練習曲》中演奏時間最長的兩首,但〈晚間的和聲〉曲境更為豐富。此曲與其說是描述黃昏與夜晚,不如說是李斯特對和聲的禮贊。不只有夜晚的幽暗與神秘,更有功力深厚的和聲寫作,如同晚霞千變萬化;既有晚間情調與鐘聲摹寫,也洋溢對和聲本身的想象與創意。〈晚間的和聲〉充滿大型和弦,演奏者不但得以杰出技巧彈出平衡的張力,更要在和弦堆中表現李斯特獨到的旋律感與轉調手法,是全曲集最富詩意,也最難以表現完整的艱深之作。也因為有了〈晚間的和聲〉和〈回憶〉,《超技練習曲》也就不落入純然炫技,堪稱面面俱到的藝術精品。

        No. 11, Harmonies du soir (D-flat major)

        “Harmonies du soir” and “Ricordanza” are the two longest of études d'exécution transcendante, but “Harmonies du soir” is richer in its artistic conception. This piece is not so much a description of dusk and night, as it is Liszt's praise for harmony. The piece has not only the darkness and mystery of the night, but it is also profound in harmony writing, i.e. the deep and agreeable harmonies of the ever-changing sunset, the mood of evening and bells, and the imagination and creativity of harmony. “Harmonies du soir” is full of large chords, the performer must not only have outstanding skills to bring out the tension inherent in their stability, but must also, among that mass of chords, express Liszt's unique sense of melody and transposition. This composition is the most poetic of the whole series, and it also has the most difficult overall presentation. Because of “Harmonies du soir” and “Ricordanza”, the études d'exécution transcendante are not merely pure fireworks and acrobatics; on the contrary, they make the totality a fine piece of art.

        第十二曲〈耙雪〉,降B 小調

        作為《超技練習曲》最終大曲,李斯特果然沒有令人失望,寫下技巧艱難至極的〈耙雪〉:此曲以各種不同顫音構成,另有掌控不易的八度與跳躍,既嚴格要求手指獨立性,又逼求準確的力度控制。鋼琴家要表現雙手交替歌唱旋律線,更要在鍵盤上展現跳躍特技,方能營造天寒地凍、如履薄冰之危顫感受。布梭尼認為〈耙雪〉具體呈現雪花紛飛,逐漸掩埋平川大江、城鎮市集的冬日景象,意象與音樂皆美,是十二曲藝術成就最高的一首。或許,正要有技巧和藝術皆達頂峰的創作,再加上那「落了片白茫茫大地真干凈」的空寂意象,方能為《超技練習曲》收尾,也讓這十二曲有了最雋永的句點。

        No. 12, Chasse-neige (B-flat minor)

        As for the final piece of the études d'exécution transcendante, Liszt does not disappoint in his demand of technical skills. The étude is composed of numerous tremolos, octave jumps, and not only involves strict finger independence, but also requires extreme accuracy in hand control. In order to recreate a cold and chilly atmosphere, such as the feeling of trepidation on thin ice, the pianist must make the singing melodic line by playing wide jumps with alternating hands on the keyboard. Busoni said, “’Chasse-neige’ is a sublime and steady fall of snow which gradually buries both landscape and people.” In this composition, imagery and music beautifully meet. The piece also represents the highest artistic achievement of the twelve études. The essential skills and art are necessary to reach the peak of creation, coupled with the feeling of emptiness of, “The falling piece of white cleaning the vast expanses of the earth”, concludes the études d'exécution transcendante, leaving these twelve compositions with an eternal ending.

        鋼琴大師阿勞(Claudio Arrau, 1903-1991)曾說「演奏李斯特,所要求的技巧比實際需求更高,如此方能予人毫不費力、舒展自如之感。」誠然,若要演奏《超技練習曲》且能游刃有余,鋼琴家豈能只是練好學會而已。要全面表現此曲中的文學想象,演奏家又怎能只是練琴?透過技法探索與情境描寫,李斯特不只為世人留下偉大創作,更指引音樂演奏的終極境界,超越技巧的技巧。

        The great master Claudio Arrau (1903-1991) once said: “Playing Liszt requires more skills than one actually needs, so that you can feel effortless and relaxed.” True, to play the études d'exécution transcendante, one cannot simply practice them as exercises, but must fully express their literary imagination. How can one be content with practicing the piano only? Through the exploration of techniques and contextual descriptions, Liszt not only leaves us with a masterwork, but also takes us to the ultimate realm of music performance and technical skills beyond technical skills.

        Recording avenue: Academy of Arts and Letters New York, USA

        Final Recording Date: 2018.07

        Engineer: Tom Lazarus

        Piano by Steinway & Sons


        專輯曲目:

        01.No. 1, Preludio (C Major)
        02.No. 2, Molto vivace (A Minor)
        03.No. 3, Paysage (F Major)
        04.No. 4, Mazeppa (D Minor)
        05.No. 5, Feux follets (B-Flat Major)
        06.No. 6, Vision (G Minor)
        07.No. 7, Eroica (E-Flat Major)
        08.No. 8, Wilde Jagd (C Minor)
        09.No. 9, Ricordanza (A-Flat Major)
        10.No. 10, Allegro agitato molto (F Minor)
        11.No. 11, Harmonies du soir (D-Flat Major)
        12.No. 12, Chasse-neige (B-Flat Minor)






        在線試聽:
        https://music.163.com/#/album?id=81878492
        https://y.qq.com/n/yqq/album/002I1bij2nqxap.html






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        顏小健《夢游人行道》2019/320K/MP3/BD/CT
        王菲《我和我的祖國》2019/320K/MP3/百度

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        發表于 2019-9-29 16:07:02 | 只看該作者
        聽聽古典。。。

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        鋼琴可是最喜歡的東西了

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        太有個性了,哈哈,音樂肯定也有意思。

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        透過技巧展現音樂想象
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        重庆快乐十分开奖结果彩票控
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